The distribution of cash from tip boxes to volunteer workers is subject to FICA taxation per the analysis in Chief Counsel Advice 201816010. The memorandum determined the payments met the definition of tips found in Revenue Ruling 2012-18.
The CCA describes the facts in this matter as follows:
Taxpayer engages individuals to perform services at the Taxpayer's request and on the Taxpayer's premises. Taxpayer treats the individuals as volunteers and does not directly pay the individuals any form of compensation or benefits for their services. Taxpayer acknowledges, however, that the individuals receive cash payments from amounts contributed by customers. The cash amounts are deposited by customers in “tip boxes” placed by Taxpayer in the vicinity of where the individuals perform services.
Taxpayer places the “tip boxes” to encourage customers to contribute cash amounts to the individuals. Taxpayer does not require customers to make cash contributions and customers have discretion on how much cash to contribute (including zero contribution).
The amount of cash in the “tip boxes” is distributed at the end of each shift. Individuals who performed services during a shift determine how to allocate the tip box amount between all of the individuals who performed services during that shift. Although Taxpayer is aware that customers place cash in the “tip boxes” and that the individuals working each shift distribute the cash among themselves, Taxpayer does not have a system in place for individuals to provide written statements reporting the cash amounts received to Taxpayer, and there is no evidence that Taxpayer has knowledge of the specific amount of cash received by each individual. Taxpayer does not issue Forms W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, to the individuals and has not included any wages or taxes in connection with their services on Form 941, Employer's QUARTERLY Federal Tax Return.
The memorandum looks at the test provided in Revenue Ruling 2012-18 and applies it to this situation:
Tips are not defined in the Code or regulations; however, published guidance addresses how to determine whether a payment is a tip. Rev. Rul. 2012-18 reaffirms the factors first stated in Rev. Rul. 59-252 which are used to determine whether payments constitute tips. Rev. Rul. 2012-18 provides that the absence of any of the following factors creates a doubt as to whether a payment is a tip:
1) payment must be made free from compulsion;
2) the customer must have the unrestricted right to determine the amount;
3) the payment should not be the subject of negotiation or dictated by employer policy; and
4) generally, the customer has the right to determine who receives the payment.
Under the facts presented, the four factors set forth in Rev. Rul. 2012-18 have been satisfied. The fact that the cash contributions are collected by the individuals who work during the shift and pooled for purposes of distribution among them satisfies the fourth factor. The customers generally have the right to determine who receives the payment when the tipped amounts are pooled and the individuals working each shift distribute the cash among themselves.
Having determined the payments were tips, the next question involves the taxpayer’s liability for FICA and when that liability occurs. The analysis notes:
Under section 3121(q), tips received by an employee in the course of the employee's employment are considered remuneration for that employment (and are deemed to have been paid by the employer for purposes of the employer portion of the FICA taxes imposed by sections 3111(a) and (b)). For purposes of determining the timing of the employer's FICA tax liability, the remuneration is deemed to be paid when a written statement including the tips is furnished to the employer by the employee pursuant to section 6053(a). However, if the employee did not furnish the statement, or if the statement furnished was inaccurate or incomplete, the remuneration is deemed to be paid on the date on which the Service issues a notice and demand under section 3121(q) for the taxes to the employer.
In this case the second test applied, as no statements were provided by the volunteers regarding the tips they received.
The ruling concludes that:
Once the amounts have been properly identified and characterized as tips, the timing of the FICA rules for employer tax liability purposes can be applied. Because the tips have not been reported to the taxpayer pursuant to section 6053(a), they are deemed to be paid on the date on which the Service issues a notice and demand under section 3121(q) for the taxes to the taxpayer. Thus, the tips are not subject to the employer share of FICA tax until the Service issues a notice and demand under section 3121(q).
The Service should issue Letter 3523 to Taxpayer based on the worker classification determination, and should identify in Table 1 the individuals the Service determined should be reclassified as employees. However, tax on the cash amounts received by the individuals should not be included in Table 3 of Letter 3523 because the tips are deemed paid only after the Service issues a notice and demand under section 3121(q). Thus, the only issue that would be subject to Tax Court jurisdiction would be the proper worker classification of the individuals listed in Table 1.